The fiber optics transmission involves transmission of signals in the form of light from one point to the other. Furthermore, a fiber optic communication network consists of transmitting and receiving circuitry, a light source and detector devices like the ones shown in the figure.
When the input data, in the form of electrical signals, is given to the transmitter circuitry, it converts them into light signal with the help of a light source. This source is of LED whose amplitude, frequency and phases must remain stable and free from fluctuation in order to have efficient transmission. The light beam from the source is carried by a fiber optic cable to the destination circuitry wherein the information is transmitted back to the electrical signal by a receiver circuit.
There are three main basic elements of fiber optic communication system. They are:
Accessories like connectors, switches, couplers, multiplexing devices, amplifiers and splices are also essential elements in this communication system.